Tag: general anxiety disorder (GAD)

Alprazolam (Xanax®, Niravam®)

Alprazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine medication used in the treatment of anxiety disorders.  It acts as a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic GABAA receptors, increasing neuronal hyperpolarization and CNS depressant effects.  Alprazolam is the only benzodiazepine with significant antidepressant efficacy.

Continue reading “Alprazolam (Xanax®, Niravam®)”


Venlafaxine (Effexor®)

Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-class antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and several anxiety disorders.  Due to concerns about increased risk of suicide in younger patients, this drug is generally prescribed for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-refractory cases.

Venlafaxine works primarily by inhibiting presynaptic serotonin reuptake in the CNS, alongside less potent blockade of the norepinephrine and dopamine transport.  It has several off-label uses including post-traumatic stress disorder and migraine headache prophylaxis.



  1. Wishart DS, Feunang YD, Guo AC, Lo EJ, Marcu A, Grant JR, Sajed T, Johnson D, Li C, Sayeeda Z, Assempour N, Iynkkaran I, Liu Y, Maciejewski A, Gale N, Wilson A, Chin L, Cummings R, Le D, Pon A, Knox C, Wilson M. DrugBank 5.0: a major update to the DrugBank database for 2018. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Nov 8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx1037
  2. Epocrates Rx Online [Internet database]. San Mateo (CA): Epocrates, Inc. 2003. Retrieved at mobile.epocrates.com. Web-based; continuous content updates. Accessed 2018 April 29.
  3. “Prescription Prices, Coupons & Pharmacy Information – GoodRx.” Prescription Prices, Coupons & Pharmacy Information – GoodRxhttp://www.goodrx.com