Phenytoin is a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant. Phenytoin or its prodrug fosphenytoin are given intravenously in the treatment of status epilepticus or in oral formulations as control treatment in seizure disorders. Fosphenytoin may carry a lower risk of causing an injection site reaction than phenytoin.
Phenytoin decreases neuronal membrane excitability in the motor cortex and other cortical domains by blocking voltage-gated sodium channel proteins and stabilizing neuronal membranes against spurious depolarization during epileptiform electrical activity.
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