Clomiphene (Clomid®, Serophene®) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) drug FDA-approved for the treatment of infertility caused by anovulation. The drug targets the estrogen receptor and has both agonist and antagonistic properties depending on tissue type. Competition with estrogens results in gonadotropin release by the anterior pituitary gland, increased sex hormone production, and stimulation of follicle release by the ovaries.
Clomiphene has also shown efficacy in treatment of male infertility via induction of spermatogenesis and is sometimes prescribed off-label for this purpose.
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