Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain and certain inflammatory conditions. It is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), blocking PGH-2 and downstream PGE-2 synthesis. Decreased prostaglandin production impairs pro-inflammatory pathways and leads to decreased pain sensation.
Other COX-2-specific inhibitors have been withdrawn from the market due to concerns about thromboembolic risk. The United States FDA recently determined that the available evidence does not conclusively demonstrate an elevated thromboembolic risk with celecoxib use relative to other NSAIDS.
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