Category: Gastrointestinal

Atorvastatin (Lipitor®)


Atorvastatin is statin-class drug commonly prescribed for the treatment of dyslipidemias and for the prevention of ischemic cardiovascular events.  It works by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.  Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase decreases hepatic cholesterol synthesis, increases hepatic cholesterol re-uptake, and decreases serum cholesterol levels. Continue reading “Atorvastatin (Lipitor®)”


Omeprazole (Prilosec®) – Proton Pump Inhibitor


Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and peptic ulcer disease.  Continue reading “Omeprazole (Prilosec®) – Proton Pump Inhibitor”

Codeine Sulfate (Generic)

Codeine is an opioid drug indicated for mild-to-moderate pain.  It functions as a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist and provides milder analgesia and fewer euphoric effects than morphine and several of the synthetic opioids (e.g., fentanyl).  Patients in whom non-opioid pain control (e.g., NSAIDS, acetaminophen, combination medications) has failed should be considered for weak opioids like codeine or tramadol before escalation to strong opioids like hydrocodone or morphine.

Codeine is sometimes prescribed off-label for cough (it is FDA-approved for this use only in combination with chlorpheniramine/guaifenesin/etc) and for acute diarrhea unresponsive to other anti-motility agents.   The drug is contraindicated in fast CYP2D6 metabolizers due to accelerated conversion to morphine and increased risk of respiratory depression and death.  Codeine carries a significant risk of abuse and dependency.




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