Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel, Yescarta®) is a gene therapy modality used in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Axi-cel treatment involves isolation of patient T-lymphocytes, lentiviral transduction of the lymphocytes with an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen T-Cell receptor (CAR), and intravenous reinfusion of the resulting CAR-T cells into the patient.
Axicabtagene ciloleucel is the 2nd gene therapy product approved by the FDA after tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah®), a similar treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The vast majority of patients exposed to axi-cel experience significant toxicity involving cytokine release syndrome and a resulting encephalopathy.
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