Anakinra is a recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist approved as a disease modifying reagent for moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). Anakinra inhibits the IL-1 Type I receptor with the same mechanism as the endogenous IL-1 antagonist IL-1RA.
Inhibition of the IL-1 receptor in cartilage results in decreased cartilage degradation and bone resorption and slowing of the progression of RA. Off-target anticytokine effects lower infection threshold and may result in hematological cytopenias, upper respiratory infection or more severe infection.
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